Azospirillum – a bio-fertiliser!
The benefits of the Azospirillum are elaborated in depth in this post. Azospirillum is a genus of bacteria in the “Rhodospirillaceae” family. Azospirillum is the best-studied genus of rhizobacteria that help plants grow.
With Azospirillum, plants can still grow even when they are under osmotic or saline stress. These ways are named “induced systemic tolerance.” They include the production of antioxidants, hormones, and osmotic adjustments. Also, they entail defence mechanisms like the expression of genes that are involved in pathogenesis.
In a broad sense, the extracts of Azospirillum utilised in agriculture can handle salt concentrations of up to 2%, but this varies on the Azospirillum genotype. They were discovered in the roots of grasses and cereals all over the world, in both tropical as well as temperate climates.
In experiments conducted in both greenhouses and outdoors, Azospirillum was found to promote the growth of plants and enhance agricultural yields.
Uses of Azospirillum
The natural habitat, the link between Azospirillum and plant roots, nitrogen fixation, and the manufacture of plant growth hormones are the four aspects of the relationship between Azospirillum and plant roots that are emphasised.
Plant growth is included in the benefits of the Azospirillum. There are several distinct methods in which Azospirillum might assist in the growth of plants. Numerous species of Azospirillum produce plant hormones, which alter the pattern of root development. When roots are damaged, they often produce new branches as well as fine root hairs, which might also assist plants in receiving more water and nutrients.
At the present time, the greatest focus has been placed on Azospirillum irakense, Azospirillum halopraeferens, Azospirillum amazonense, Azospirillum brasilense, and Azospirillum lipoferum.
More of the root surface can be penetrated by nutrients when there are more lateral roots and root hairs. This indicates that the inoculated roots can take in more nutrients and that the plant receives more water, both of which are potential contributors to the accelerated growth of the plant.
Advantages of Azospirillum
Rhizosphere bacteria known as Azospirillum are Gram-negative and have the ability to fix nitrogen. They can make use of carbon and nitrogen in various ways, allowing them to flourish in the rhizosphere, which is a very competitive environment for them to exist in.
Fixing nitrogen is entailed in the benefits of the Azospirillum. Azospirillum is capable of altering the chemical structures of essential plant nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Azospirillum makes the essential plant nutrients more available to plants. However, the amount of nitrogen that Azospirillum contributes to agricultural plants through the process of biological fixation is not entirely apparent.
Azospirillum is a bacterium that can encourage plant growth under the right climate and soil circumstances, leading to increased crop yields and higher nitrogen levels in the plants’ bodies. This plant-stimulating effect of Azospirillum has been connected to several different biological processes, including the generation of auxin and the biological process of nitrogen fixation.
Benefits of Azospirillum
Molecular nitrogen, amino acids, nitrite, nitrate, and ammonium are all different types of nitrogen sources that can be used. When environmental conditions are unfavourable, such as when there is an inadequate supply of water or food, Azospirillum has the potential to transform into cyst-like forms that are larger. This transformation in form is accompanied by the growth of an outer layer of polysaccharides and the buildup of numerous polyhydroxybutyrate granules, both of which can be utilised as a source of vitamin C and energy during times of stress and hunger.
Preventing plant diseases is one of the benefits of the Azospirillum. Azospirillum has the ability to prevent plant diseases, which in turn can indirectly assist plants in flourishing. On the roots, pathogens and Azospirillum compete with one another for available space and trace nutrients like iron. The immune systems of plants can be boosted by Azospirillum, allowing them to better defend themselves against infections.